A Business Model Fast Track on Energy Communities—Key Lessons Learned from H2020 EU Projects
Developing business models for energy communities means that community-based values and goals are to be taken seriously. This paper presents how several European Horizon projects attempt to do so, highlighting the key issues and challenges encountered. The various projects also show diverse ways to support energy community BMs, developing and demonstrating both technological as well as governance tools and support. What all projects point out is that energy communities lack (financial, knowledge, relational) resources, and that the current local, regional and national market and policy frameworks are not conducive for energy community BMs.
Breukers S, Schibline A, Pressmair G, Barnes J, Perrio MF, Calatayud EP, Rakocevic L. A Business Model Fast Track on Energy Communities—Key Lessons Learned from H2020 EU Projects. Environmental Sciences Proceedings. 2021; 11(1):19. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021011019
Tools for increasing the penetration of bioenergy technologies in community energy
Valorisation of Spent Coffee Ground by Mixing With Residual Biomass for Pellet Production. Evaluation of Solid Fuel Properties at Different Mixtures
Everyday coffee is consumed globally. Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the residue obtained during the brewing process. SCG represent an abundant source of energy biomass, or raw material for added value products, still largely unexploited. Such residue can have several applications such as polymers/composites precursors, biofuels, biofertilizers etc. The aim of the present paper is the pilot production of pellets by mixing SCG and other residual
biomass feedstocks. In this light, coffee residues were mixed at different ratios (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 wt%) together with: i) forestry residues; ii) sawmill residues;iii) urban pruningsiv) maize residues; v) peach prunings; and vi) miscanthus. Continuously, samples of each fuel mixture were analysed at the Solid Fuels Laboratory of CPERI/CERTH in Greeceby applying established standards. The results of the analyses show that the mixing of biomass residues with coffee could result to competitive solid biofuels. More specifically, pellets with up to 10% coffee residues, mixed with sawmill residues, comply with the A2 limits set by ISO 17225-2 for wood pellets, while pellets withup to 30% coffee residues comply with the class B limits for wood pellets for commercial/residential applications. In the same light, urban prunings mixed with 10 wt% coffee residues are within the limits set for class B wood pellets.
M.A. Kougioumtzis1,2,*, V. Filippou3, A. Rontogianni1, E. Karampinis1,2, P. Grammelis1 , E. Kakaras1,2
1 Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas,Egialias 52, 15125 Athens, Greece
2 National Technical University of Athens, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, HeroonPolytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens, Greece
3 Energy Community of Karditsa (ESEK), 6th km. Karditsa – Kedros, 43100, Karditsa, Greece
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org